Dried Milk Powder
Dried milk powder is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Dried milk powder and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, nonfat (skimmed) dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends. Many dairy products exported conform to standards laid out in Codex Alimentarius. Many forms of milk powder are traded on exchanges.
Powdered milk is used for food and health (nutrition), and also in biotechnology
History and manufacture
Modified dry whole milk, fortified with vitamin D. This is the original container from 1947, provided by the Ministry of Food in London, England
In modern times, the milk can be dried by drum drying. Milk is applied as a thin film to the surface of a heated drum, and the dried milk solids are then scraped off. However, dried milk powder made this way tends to have a cooked flavor, due to caramelization caused by greater heat exposure.
The drying method and the heat treatment of the milk as it is processed alters the properties of the milk powder, such as its solubility in cold water, its flavor, and its bulk density.
Food and health uses
Dried milk powder is frequently used in the manufacture of infant formula, confectionery such as chocolate and caramel candy, and in recipes for baked goods where adding liquid milk would render the product too thin. Dried milk powder is also widely used in various sweets such as the famous Indian milk balls known as gulab jamun and a popular Indian sweet delicacy (sprinkled with desiccated coconut) known as Chum chum (made with skim milk powder).
Dried milk powder is also a common item in UN food aid supplies, fallout shelters, warehouses, and wherever fresh milk is not a viable option. It is widely used in many developing countries because of reduced transport and storage costs (reduced bulk and weight, no refrigerated vehicles). Like other dry foods, it is considered nonperishable, and is favored by survivalists, hikers, and others requiring nonperishable, easy-to-prepare food.
Because of its resemblance to cocaine and other drugs, powdered milk is sometimes used in film making as a non-toxic prop that may be insufflated.
The weight of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) to use is about 10% of the water weight.Alternatively, one cup of potable fluid milk from dried milk powder requires one cup of potable water and one-third cup of dried milk powder.
Milk powders contain all twenty-one standard amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, and are high in soluble vitamins and minerals.According to USAID,the typical average amounts of major nutrients in the unreconstituted nonfat dry milk are (by weight) 36% protein, 52% carbohydrates (predominantly lactose), calcium 1.3%, potassium 1.8%. Whole milk powder, on the other hand, contains on average 25-27% protein, 36-38% carbohydrates, 26-40% fat, and 5-7% ash (minerals). However, inappropriate storage conditions such as high relative humidity and high ambient temperature can significantly degrade the nutritive value of milk powder.
Commercial milk powders are reported to contain oxysterols (oxidized cholesterol) in higher amounts than in fresh milk (up to 30 μg/g, versus trace amounts in fresh milk). Oxysterols are derivatives of cholesterol that are produced either by free radicals or by enzymes. Some free radicals-derived oxysterols have been suspected of being initiators of atherosclerotic plaques.For comparison, powdered eggs contain even more oxysterols, up to 200 μg/g.
National household dried machine skimmed milk. This was U.S.-produced dry milk for food export in June 1944.
European production of milk powder is estimated around 800,000 tons of which the main volume is exported in bulk packing or consumer packs.